In just a short time, most businesses have gone from complicated to complex: They contain numerous diverse, interdependent parts. This makes managers’ jobs much more difficult for several reasons:
- They can’t predict what will happen when various parts of the business interact; the same starting conditions may yield different results.
- Seemingly simple actions produce unintended consequences.
- Human beings’ cognitive limits mean that no manager can understand all aspects of the business — but many refuse to acknowledge those limits.